Difference Between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
Difference Between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis : The occurrence of Spermatogenesis is found inside the seminiferous tubules of a testis whereas oogenesis is present inside the ovary.
Difference Between Spermatogenesis And Oogenesis
The major difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis includes factors like the process, occurrence, product formation after gametogenesis. The difference in the process consists of the production of sperms from spermatogonium on the other side the oogonium is used for the production of the ovum.
The occurrence of Spermatogenesis is found inside the seminiferous tubules of a testis whereas oogenesis is present inside the ovary.
The product form in spermatogenesis is sperm which is motile and the product form in an oogonium is ovum which is non-motile. Thus there is the structural and functional difference between sperm and ovum.
Gametogenesis is the process in which the sperm and ovum are produced. This sperm and ovum are also known as male and female gametes. This production of sperm and ovum occurs inside the testis of the male and the ovary of the female.
Difference Between Spermatogenesis And Oogenesis
|Definition||The main feature is the production of the sperms from spermatogenesis.||The main feature is the production of the ovum from oogenesis.|
|Stages||All the stages take place in the testis.||Not all only the last stage of oogenesis takes place in the oviduct.|
|Location||Spermatogenesis is located in the testis of males.||Oogenesis is located in the ovary of females.|
|Growth||The growth phase is short.||The growth phase is extended.|
|Production rate||The production of sperms is in millions every day.||Only one ovum is released once a month.|
|Release||The sperms are released from the testis.||The ova are released from the ovary.|
|Duration||It takes place every day.||It takes place once per month.|
|Cell division||The division is equal and helps in the formation of four haploid spermatids.||The division of the cell is unequal and helps in the formation of one haploid ovum and two polar bodies.|
|Nuclear Condensation||It takes place in the sperms.||No nuclear condensation is found in the ovum.|
|Mortality||The sperms are motile.||The ova are nonmotile.|
Spermatogenesis is the reproductive stage where the production of haploid sperms takes place from “spermatogonium” in a male gonad, i.e. seminiferous tubules of a testis.
The process in spermatogenesis includes the following steps:
- Spermatogonium first develops from the germinal epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules which are diploid stem-cell having totipotency.
- It then goes through mitosis cell division and evolves into primary spermatocytes. This process is known as “Spermatocytogenesis”.
- This primary spermatocytes further goes through meiosis cell division-1 and result in the formation of two secondary spermatocytes.
- Now, this secondary spermatocytes experience meiosis cell division-2 and form two spermatids which connect to the border of testis lumen through the cytoplasmic bridges.
- Spermatids are round in shape and non-motile cells that undergo maturation and form motile, haploid sperms. This process of formation of sperms forms spermatids refers to “Spermiogenesis”.
- The duration required for the formation of sperm from Spermatogonium is 70 days by spermatogenesis.
- A Spermatogonium forms four spermatozoa.
- One primary spermatocyte is responsible for the production of two secondary spermatocytes.
- In humans the number of chromosomes is 46, due to no meiosis division in the Spermatogonium, the chromosomal number will remain the same. But when primary spermatocyte further goes through meiosis cell division 1 and 2, then the chromosomal number becomes half i.e. 46 in the primary and 23 in the secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperms.
- In one ejaculation, 200-300 million sperms are produced. It consists of 60% non-motile and 40% motile sperms.
- The normal range should be within 100million/ml of semen in a male. If there is less count then the “Oligospermia” condition occurs which causes infertility.
Oogenesis is the reproductive stage where the formation of haploid ovum occurs from “Oogonium” in a female gonad, i.e. ovaries.
The process in oogenesis includes the following steps:
- Oogonium first develops from the germinal epithelium overlying the ovary having a self-renewing capacity.
- Oogonium then goes through mitosis cell division and differentiates into primary oocytes.
- This primary oocytes further goes through meiosis cell division-1 which seizes at the diplotene stage in childhood. When puberty occurs this helps in the formation of secondary oocyte and one polar body.
- Secondary oocytes go through meiosis cell division-2 which stops at the metaphase stage forms ootid.
- When this ootid experiences the process of fertilization it produces the non-motile, large and spherical ovum and second polar body that degenerates.
- An Oogonium forms a single ovum.
- One primary oocyte will produce one secondary oocyte and one polar body that degenerates from the ovary.
- In humans the number of chromosomes is 46, due to no meiosis division in the Oogonium, the chromosomal number will be the same. But when the primary oocyte undergoes meiosis cell division 1 and 2, the chromosomal number becomes half i.e. 46 in the primary oocyte and 23 in the secondary oocyte and one polar body and ovum.
- In oogenesis, 7million primary oocytes forms in the ovary of a female fetus which reverts to 2-4millions at the time of birth. After puberty, only 40,000 primary oocytes left out and reverts to 480 after the division in a reproductive phase of 11-50 years in females.
Difference between Male and Female Gamete
The sperm and ovum can be distinguished in many ways like their structure, motility, shape, size, etc.
Structure of sperm
It consists of three parts head, neck, and tail.
Head: It consists of acrosome present at the tip and is produced by the Golgi body. It contains an enzyme known as “Sperm lysins”. It conducts an essential role that enters the ovum by digesting away its membrane. A non-condensed nucleus is also present with no nucleoplasm.
Neck: It consists of a proximal centriole that is required for the first cleavage and a Distal centriole which maintains the axial filament.
Middle piece: It comprises axial filament which consists of organized mitochondria. These mitochondria are approximately 25 in number that provides energy for the flagellar movement.
Tail: It is extended and motile surrounds by a flagellar sheath.
Structure of ovum
- It does not consist of a head, neck, and tail.
- A nucleus of an ovum is uncommon. In this nuclear condensation is present where it is bloated with nucleoplasm and refers to germinal vesicles.
- Centrioles are absent in ovum.
- In the ovum, the mitochondria scatter in the cytoplasm.
- Ovum consists of little or no yolk.
- The size is larger than the oocytes.
- It consists of a large amount of cytoplasm.
- Ovum surrounds by two layers known as granulosa cells and zona pellucida.
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